Are Electronic Cigarettes Safe

Fact: Vaping is healthier the cigarettes

Fact: The UK government has determined that vaping is 95% healthier than cigarettes

Fact: When people quit smoking and start vaping, their lung capacity improves

Fact: There are only 3 to 4 ingredients in eLiquid

Fact: eLiquid ingredients are not used in 'antifreeze'

Fact: Regulated vape devices are no more at risk of exploding than your mobile phone

Fact: Nicotine is not a carcinogen

Fact: Vaping will help you quit smoking


The following are summaries of scientific research that identify the risks (or lack there of) associated with electronic cigarettes. This list is not a comprehensive list of all research, nor is Vape Anarchy making any scientific claims about the safety or efficacy of electronic cigarettes. We encourage all members of the public to make informed decisions that are in their own best interests.

Is It Safe? - you decide



i Farsalinos, K., et al, (2012), Acute effects of using an electronic nicotine-delivery device (e-cigarette)

on myocardial function: comparison with the effects of regular cigarettes, Presentation Slides, ESC

Congress, 2012.


ii Bullen, C., et al, (2010), Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to

smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial, Tobacco

Control, 2010 Apr, 19(2):98-103


iii Vansickel, A.R., et al, (2010), A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of

Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects, Cancer

Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 19(8); OF1-9, 2010.


iv Granger, J. & Cornette, B., (2012), Observation de l’acceptation de la cigarette

électronique, Résultats à trois mois


v Etter, J.F., & Bullen, C., (2011), Electronic cigarette: users profile, utilization, satisfaction and

perceived efficacy, Addiction 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03505.x


vi Caponnetto, P., Polosa, R., Auditore, R., Russo, C., & Campagna, D., (2011), Smoking Cessation with E-Cigarettes in Smokers with a Documented History of Depression and Recurring Relapses,

International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2011, 2, 281-284.


vii Vansickel, A.,R., & Eissenberg, T., (2012), Electronic Cigarettes: Effective Nicotine

Delivery After Acute Administration, Oxford Journals, Nicotine and Tobacco Research


viii Caponnetto, P., Auditore, R., Russo, C., Cappello, G.C., and Polosa, R., (2013),

Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in

Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study, International Journal of

Environmental Research and Public Health 2013, 10, 446-461; doi:


ix Eissenberg, T., (2010), Electronic nicotine delivery devices: ineffective nicotine delivery and craving

suppression after acute administration, Tobacco Control, 2010 February, doi: 10.1136/tc.2009.033498


x UK Vapers Forum, What will you do if your liquid gets banned, online survey, 2013


xi Siegel, M.B., Tanwar, K.L., & Wood, K.S., (2011), Electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tool:

Results from an Online Survey, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2011, Apr; 40(4):472-5


xii ECig Direct Survey, (2011), An Electronic Cigarette Ban: What would users do?.


xiii McQueen, A., Tower, S., & Sumner, W., (2011), Interviews With “Vapers”: Implications for Future

Research With Electronic Cigarettes, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011, doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntr088


xiv Pepper, J.K., et al, (2012), Adolescent Males’ Awareness of and Willingness to Try Electronic

Cigarettes, Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 52, Issue 2, pp.144-150, February 2013


xv Kikukawa, M.K., et al, (2011), Safety Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes in Smokers, Journal of

Urban Living and Health Association, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 59-64, 2011


xvi Lauterbach, J., H., Laugesen, M., & Ross, J.D., (2012), Suggested protocol for

estimation of harmful and potentially harmful constituents in mainstream aerosols

generated by electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), poster as presented


xvii Borland, R, (2011), Electronic cigarettes as a method of tobacco control, British Medical Journal,

BMJ 2011;343:d6269 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d6269


xviii Laugesen, M., (2008), Safety Report on the Ruyan® e-cigarette Cartridge and Inhaled Aerosol,

Health New Zealand, 2008.


xix Wagener, T.L., Siegel, M., et al, (2012), Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective,

Addiction Journal, Vol 107 Issue 9.


xx Boston University School of Public Health, (2010), Evidence Suggests E-Cigs Safer

Than Cigarettes, Researcher Claims, The Insider, 16 December 2010


xxi Chen, I., (2012), FDA Summary of Adverse Events on Electronic Cigarettes, Nicotine & Tobacco

Research, Volume 15, Number 2 (February 2013), 615-616


xxii Rodu, B., (2013), FDA: Adverse Events Related to E-Cigarettes Are Almost Nonexistent, Tobacco

Truth blogspot, 2013


xxiii Westenberger, B.J., (2009), Evaluation of e-cigarettes, Letter to Michael Levy,

Supervisor Regulatory Counsel, CDER, Office of Compliance, Division of New Drugs

and Labeling Compliance, May 4, 2009


xxiv Lindsay, J.C., (2009), Technical Review and Analysis of FDA Report: “Evaluation of

e-cigarettes”, Document no. 0900923.000 D0T0 JH08, July 30,2009


xxv Thomas, B., Study to Determine Presence of TSNAs in NJOY Vapor, Ben Thomas Group, LLC,

Sottera Inc., 2009


xxvi Coulson, H., (2009), Analysis of Components from Gamucci Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Tobacco Flavour Regular Smoking Liquid, Report Number: E98D, LPD Lab Services


xxvii Alliance Technologies, (2009), Characterization of Liquid “Smoke Juice” for Electronic Cigarettes, report prepared for Johnson Creek Enterprises, 2009


xxviii Seckar, J.A., et al, (2008), Environmental fate and effects of nicotine released during cigarette

production, Environmental Toxicological Chemistry, doi: 10.1897/07-284.1.


xxix McAuley, T.R., et al, (2012), Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and

cigarette smoke on indoor air quality, Inhalation Toxicology, Vol. 24, No.12, Pages

850-857 (doi: 10.3109/08958378.2012.724728)


xxx Schripp, T, et al, (2012), Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping?,

Indoor Air, Jun 2. (doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00792.x.)


xxxi ECITA Quarterly Update Issue 2, Section 6


xxxii Romagna, G., et al, (2012), Characterization of chemicals released to the

environment by electronic cigarette use (ClearStream-AIR project): is passive vaping

a reality?, abstract presented at SRNT meeting 2012 in Helsinki

xxxiii Laugesen, M., (2009), Ruyan® E-cigarette Bench-top tests, Poster 5-11, Society for Research on

Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) Dublin, April 30, 2009


xxxiv Harvard School of Public Health Press Release, (2012), Nicotine replacement therapies may not be effective in helping people quit smoking, Eurekalert, 2012


xxxv Alpert, H.R., et al, (2012), A prospective cohort study challenging the effectiveness of population based medical intervention for smoking cessation, BMJ, Tobacco Control, doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050129


xxxvi Chapman, S. & MacKenzie R., (2010), Global Research Neglect of Unassisted Smoking Cessation: Causes and Consequences, PLOS Medicine, doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000216


xxxvii Stepanov, I., et al, (2009), Presence of the Carcinogen N’-Nitrosonornicotine in the Urine of Some Users of Oral Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products, Cancer Research, doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1084


xxxviii Woolf, A., et al, (1996), Self-poisoning among adults using multiple transdermal nicotine patches, Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology, 1996;34(6):691-8.


xxxix Benowitz, N.L., et al, (1991), Stable isotope studies of nicotine kinetics and bioavailability, Nature, Volume 49, No. 3.


xl Smolinske, S.C., et al, (1988), Cigarette and Nicotine Chewing Gum Toxicity in Children, Human &

Experimental Toxicology Journal, doi: 10.1177/096032718800700105


xli United Press International, (2009), Boy, 14, overdoses on nicotine gum


xlii The Mirror (UK), (2009), Boy, 14, overdoses on nicotine gum given out at school


xliii The Telegraph (UK), (2013), Children as young as 12 given nicotine patches on the NHS


xliv Wang, T., et al, (2007), Preclinical safety evaluation of inhaled cyclosporine in propylene glycol,

Journal of Aerosol Medicine, Winter;20(4):417-28


xlv Health Hazard Evaluation Report, (1994), NIOSH investigation for Center for Disease for Controls,

HETA 90-0355-2449, August 1994


xlvi HSE Consulting and Sampling, Inc., Literature Review for Glycerol and Glycols for Entertainment

Services & Technology Association, Omaha


xlvii Health Canada, (2008), Proposed Re-evaluation Decision: Propylene Glycol, Health Canada website, Consumer Product Safety, May 2008


xlviii O. H. Robertson, et al, (1947), Tests for the Chronic Toxicity of Propylene Glycol and Triethylene

Glycol on Monkeys and Rats by Vapor Inhalation and Oral Administration, Journal of Pharmacology

and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 91 no. 1, pp. 52-76, 1947.


xlix Hernandez, O., (2001), SIDS Initial Assessment Report for 11th SIAM: Propylene glycol, OECD,

UNEP Publications, 2001


l Royal College of Physicians, (2007), Harm reduction in nicotine addiction: Helping people who can’t

quit, A report by the Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians, October 2007.




lii Savitz, D.A., et al, (2005), Public Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use as a Harm Reduction Strategy, American Journal of Public Health, 2005.


liii Royal College of Physicians, (2008), Ending tobacco smoking in Britain: Radical strategies for

prevention and harm reduction in nicotine addiction, A report by the Tobacco Advisory Group of the

Royal College of Physicians, September 2008.


liv Sweanor, D., et al, (2006), Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a

pandemic, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2006/11/013


lv Phillips, C.V., (2007), American Cancer Society/U.S. Centers for Disease Control study confirms the

value of tobacco harm reduction: Switching from smoking to smokeless tobacco is almost as good as

quitting entirely,, 2007.


lvi Phillips, C.V., (2009), Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than

switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction

arguments, Harm Reduction Journal doi: 10.1186/1477-7517-6-29


lvii Nitzkin, J.L. & Rodu, B., (2008), The Case for Harm Reduction for Control of Tobacco-related Illness and Death, prepared on behalf of the Tobacco Control Task Force, AAPHP, 2008.


lviii Phillips, C.V., (2007), Warning: Anti-tobacco activism may be hazardous to epidemiologic science,

Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 2007, doi: 10.1186/1742-5573-4-13


lix Phillips, C.V., Bergen, P., et al, (2006), Persistent misleading health advice about smokeless tobacco on the Web, Poster presentation to Medicine 2.0 Congress, 2006


lx Rodu, B., (2009), Comment to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration summarizing the rationale for tobacco harm reduction, Reprinted from public archives of public comments to the Food and DrugAdministration on the Regulation of Tobacco Products Docket FDA-1009-N-0294 (0652.1)


lxi Britton, J. & Edwards, R., (2008), Tobacco smoking, harm reduction, and nicotine product regulation,

The Lancet, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61482-2, 2007.


lxii Bergen, P.L. & Heffernan, C.E., (2010), Electronic cigarettes are the tobacco harm reduction

phenomenon of the year – but will they survive?,, Yearbook, 2010


lxiii Peele, S., (2010), The fluid concept of smoking addiction,, Yearbook,



lxiv Phillips, C.V. & Heavner, K.K., (2009), Smokeless tobacco: the epidemiology and politics of harm,

Biomarkers, Vol. 14 No. s1, Pages 79-84, July 2009.


lxv Phillips, C.V., Bergen, P.L., Heavner, K.K. & Nissen, C.M., (2010), Public comment regarding tobacco harm reduction to the U.S. Food & Drug Administration from,


lxvi Phillips, C.V., et al, (2005), You might as well smoke; the misleading and harmful public message

about smokeless tobacco, BMC Public Health, 2005


lxvii Rodu, B. & Godshall, W.T., (2006), Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for

inveterate smokers, Harm Reduction Journal, doi: 10.1186/1477-7517-3-37


lxviii Lund, K.E., (2009), A tobacco-free society or tobacco harm reduction? Which objective is best for the remaining smokers in Scandinavia?, SIRUS-Report no. 6/2009, Norwegian Institute for Alcohol andDrug Research, Oslo 2009


lxix Nissen, C.M., et al, (2010), The implicit ethical claims made in anti-tobacco harm reduction rhetoric – a brief overview,, Yearbook 2010.


lxx Nitzkin, J.L., (2012), Tobacco Harm Reduction – A Public Health Perspective, AAPHP, 2012

lxxi Bergen, P.L. & Heffernan, C.E., (2010), An analog visual comparison of best, current and worst case scenarios in (tobacco) harm reduction; numeracy-aiding tools to get the message across,


lxxii Heavner, K., et al, (2009), Survey of smokers’ reasons for not switching to safer sources of nicotine and their willingness to do so in the future, Harm Reduction Journal, 2009, 6:14.


lxxiii Gartner, C.E., Hall, W.D., Chapman, S., & Freeman, B., (2007), Should the Health Community

Promote Smokeless Tobacco (Snus) as a Harm Reduction Measure?, PLoS Med, 2007 July 3, doi: